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FLOW

Flow eli virtaustila on henkilökohtainen kokemus, jonka jokainen voi kokea eri lailla. Tällä sivulla esittelemme flow-teorian. Pyrimme käsittelemään aihetta monipuolisesti, mutta painopiste materiaalissa on luovassa design-prosessissa.

> Flow-teoria
> Flow of Creativity
> The Conditions for Flow in Creativity
> The Five Steps of Creative Process
> Enhancing Personal Creativity


 

 

 

 




 
FLOW-TEORIA

Flow-teoria: virtauskokemus motivaation lähteenä

Yksi kiintoisa perinteisistä suoritusmotivaatio- ja attribuutioteoreettisista malleista poikkeava motivaatioteoria on Mihaly Csikszentmihalyin (1975; 1996; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi 1988) esittämä flow- eli virtausteoria. Tässä teoriassa tarkastellaan voimakkaasti sisäisesti motivoitunutta toimintaa, joka on riippumatonta ulkoisista palkkioista tai sosiaalisista yllykkeistä.

Csikszentmihalyi kuvaa eri ammattien ja harrastuslajien edustajien sisäisesti motivoitunutta toimintaa autotelisen toiminnan käsitteellä. Tällainen toiminta tuottaa tekijälleen emotionaalisesti positiivisia kokemuksia, ja korkea aktiviteettitaso pysyy yllä käynnissä olevan toiminnan itsensä vuoksi, ilman ulkoisia kiihokkeita tai palkkioita (kreikk. auto 'itse', telos 'tavoite, päämäärä').

Autoteliseen toimintaan liittyy usein ns. virtauskokemus eli flow, joka merkitsee uppoutumista toimintaan sillä tavoin, että ikään kuin koko ulkoinen maailma katoaa. Henkilö on niin uppoutunut toimintaansa, että hän unohtaa ajan kulun ja jopa ruokailun. Hän unohtaa myös mahdolliset tehtävään liittyvät ulkoiset vaatimukset, kuten "deadline"-ajankohdan eli määräajan, jolioin työ on saatava valmiiksi. Samoin hän unohtaa sosiaaliset odotukset tai omaan itseen liittyvät ajatukset kyvyistään tai taidoistaan. Hän ei siis tarkkaile itseään, ei mieti mahdollista onnistumista tai epäonnistumista, vaan keskittyy täysipainoisesti itse tehtävään (vrt. tehtäväorientaatio) .
Virtauskokemuksen syntymisen edellytyksenä näyttää olevantoiminnan vaatimusten sekä henkilön valmiuksien ja kykyjen tasapaino. Mikäli henkilö kokee, että hänen kykynsä ovat riittämättömät toiminnan vaatimuksiin nähden, seurauksena on ahdistuneisuus. Jos hän sen sijaan näkee tehtävän valmiuksiinsa nähden liian helppona, seurauksena on pitkästyminen. Optimaalinen tilanne sisäisen motivaation ja virtauskokemuksen syntymiselle onkin, että tehtävän va atimukset ovat tasapainossa henkilön valmiuksien kanssa.

Flow-kokemus on varmasti joko harrastukseen tai työhön uppoutumisen kautta useimmille tuttu, mutta kouluopiskeluun ja oppimiseen tällaista kokemusta harvemmin liitetään. Eräässä tietokoneen opetuskäytön tutkimuksessa (Lehtinen 1989) kuitenkin tarkasteltiin erilaisten matematiikan opetusohjelmien motivationaalista vaikutusta mm. sisäisen motivaation ja virtauskokemusten kannalta. Tulosten mukaan sisäinen motivaatio ja virtauskokemus liittyivät usein oppilaiden tietokoneen käyttöön, mutta yhteys ei ole samanlainen kaikille oppilaille vaan riippuu siitä, miten oppilas kokee ohjelman ja tehtävien vaikeustason suhteessa omaan osaamiseensa.
Flow-teorian mukainen, motivaation kannalta optimaalinen tilanne syntyykin silloin, kun tehtävät ovat keskivaikeita eli tarjoavat oppilaalle riittävästi haasteita, mutta eivät ole oppilaan valmiuksiin nähden liian vaativia.

 
FLOW OF CREATIVITY

- creative persons differ from one other in a variety of ways, but in one respect they are unanimous: they all love what they do. opportunity to do the work that they enjoy doing. not money.

- it is not what people do that counts but how they do it. the work become intrinsically rewarding, worth doing for their own sake.

- It often involved painful, risky, difficult activities that stretched the person´s capacity and involved an element of novelty and discovery. This optimal experience is what I have called flow, because many of the respondents described the feeling when things were going well as an almost automatic, effortless, yet highly focused state of conciusness.

- the flow experience was described in almost identical terms regardless of the activity that produced it. Atheletes, artists, religious mystics, scientists, and ordinary working people described their most rewarding experiences with very similiar words. Descripition didn´t vary much by culture, gender, or age. old and young,
rich and poor, men and women.

 
THE CONDITIONS FOR FLOW IN CREATIVITY

Nine goals were mentioned over and over again to describe how it feels when an experience is enjoyable.

1. There are clear goals every step of the way.
- in flow we always know what needs to be done. Rock climber knows the next moves to make

2. There is immediate feedback to one´s actions.

- in flow we know how well we are doing. The Rock climber finds out immediately whether the move was correct because he or she is still hanging in there and hasn´t fallen.

3. There is a balance between challenges and skills.

- In flow we feel that our abilities are well matched to the opportunities for action.

4. Action and awareness are merged.

- In flow, our concentration is focused on what we do.
- One-pointedness of mind is required by the close match between challenges and skills, and it is made possible by the clarity of goals and the constant availability of feedback.

5. Distractions are excluded from conciusness

- we are aware of only of what is relevant here and now. - Flow is the result of intense concentration on the present, which relieves us of the usual fears that cause depression and anxiety in everyday life.

6. There is no worry of failure.
- While in flow, we are too involved to be concerned with failure. The reason that failure is not an issue is that in flow it is clear what has to be done, and our skills are potentially adequate to the challenges.

7. Selfconciousness disappears.

- In flow we are too involved in what we are doing to care about protecting ego. We might even feel that we have stepped out of the boundaries of the ego and have become part, at least temporarily, of a larger entity. Paradoxically, the self expands through acts of selfforgetfulness.

8. Sense of time becomes distorted

- Generally in flow we forget time, and hours may pass by in what seem like a few minutes. Clock time no longer marks equal lengths of experienced time; our sense of how much time passes depends on what we are doing.

9. The activity becomes autotelic.

- There is no reason for doing things except to feel the experience they provide.
- Secret to a happy life is to learn to get flow from as many of the things we have to do as possible. If work and family life become autotelic, then there si nothing wasted in life, and everything we do is worth doing for its own sake.

THE 5 STEPS OF CREATIVE PROCESS

1. Period of preparation, becoming immersed, consciously or not, in a set of problematic issues that are interesting and arouse curiosity.

2. Period of incubation, during which ideas churn around below the threshold of conciousness. It is during this time that unusual connections are likely to be made. Uneexpected combination may come into being.

3. Insight. "Heureka!" moment.

4. Evaluation. Person must decide whether the insight is valuable and worth pursuing. This is often the most emotianally trying part of the process, when one feels most uncertain and insecure. This is also when the internalized criteria of the domain, and the internalized opinion of the field usually become prominent.

5. Elaboration. One that probably takes up the most time and involves
thve hardest work.

Edison: creativity consists 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration.
 
ENHANCING PERSONAL CREATIVITY


- every person has potentially all the physic energy he or she need
to lead a creative life. There are major of sets of obstacles that prevent many from experessing this potential.

1. Some are exhausted by too many demands

2. Troubles learning how to protect and channel whatever energy we have

3. Laziness, or lacking discipline for controlling the flow and energy.

4. Not knowing what to do with the energy one has.


- there are limits to how many things a person can attend to at the same time, and when survival needs require all of one´s attention, none is left over for being creative. It is diffucult to approach the world creatively when one is hungry or shivering from cold, because all mental energy is focused on securing the necessities one lacks.

- person concerned with protecting his or her self, practically all the attention is invested in monitoring threats to the ego.

- to free up creative energy we need to let go and divert some attention from the pursuit of the predictable goals that genes and memes have programmed in our minds and use it instead to explore the
world around us on its own terms.

Curiosity and interest
- Creative individuals are childlike, curiosity remains fresh during their life.

- when something strikes a spark of interest, follow it.

- when there is nothing specific to do, thoughts soon return to the most predictable state, which is randomness and confusion. When there is no external force demanding that we concentrate, the mind begins to lose focus. It falls to the lowest energetic state, where the least amount of effort is required. When this happens, a sort of
mental chaos takes over. Unpleasent thoughts flash into awareness, forgotten regrets resurface, and we become depressed.

- Most creative people keep diary, or notes, or lab records to make their experiences more concrete and enduring. After (keeping the diary) you may begin to see pattern of interest that may indicate some domain that would repay exploring in depth.

Enjoyable experience
- The conditions that make flow possible suggest how to transform everyday activities so that they are more enjoyable. Having clear goals and expectations for whatever we do, paying attention to the consequences of our actions, adjusting skills to the opportunities for action in the enviroment, concentrating on the task at hand
without distractions-these are the simple rules that can make the difference between an unpleasent and an enjoyable experience.

- flow potentials (how to apply flow conditions to loading the dishwasher) ->metaskill. Being able to turn any activity into an occasion of flow. ->autotelic metaskill->self-sustaining chain of reaction of creativity.

Habits of strenghts

- after energy is awakened, protect it. Erect barriers against distractions, dig channels so that energy can flow more freely, find way to escape outside temptations and interruptions.

- Einsteins same old clothes. Cuts down the effort involved in deciding what clothes to wear, so that his mind can focus on matters that to him were more important.

- the more we do things at the most suitable times, the more creative energy we can free up. ->ideal patterns->changing things around us.

- The only way to stay creative is to oppose the wear and tear of existence with techiniques that organize time, space, and activity to your advantage. It means developing schedules to protect your time and avoid distraction, arranging your surroundings to heighten concentration, cutting out meaningless chores that soak up psychic
energy, and devoting the energy thus saved to what you really care about.

The work of creativity
- Robert Calvin: Creativity consists of anticipation and commitment. Anticipation involves having a vision of something that will become important in the future before anybody else has it; commitment is the belief that keeps one working to realize the vision despite doubt and discouragement.